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On January 7, 1804, the Ohio government authorized the creation of Muskingum County. The county's name came from an Indian word for "near the river".
The Muskingum River flows through the county. Located on Zane's Trace, the county grew quickly. In 1810, Zanesville, the county seat, became Ohio's
capital, replacing Chillicothe. The main reason for this change was an attempt by Democratic-Republicans in Ohio to solidify their control over eastern
Ohio. The capital remained in Zanesville for only two years, returning to Chillicothe in 1812, before moving permanently to Columbus in 1816.
Muskingum County is located in eastern Ohio. It is predominantly rural, with less than one percent of the county's 665 square miles consisting of urban
areas. With a population of 25,586 people, Zanesville was the county's largest community in 2000. The next largest urban area, Falls Township, had only
8,585 residents that same year. Muskingum County experienced a slight increase in population between 1990 and 2010, raising the total
number of residents to 84,884 people. Muskingum County seems to be remaining stable in population. The county averages 129 people per square mile.
The largest employers in Muskingum County are retail establishments, with manufacturing businesses a close second. The most important industry in the
county during the second half of the nineteenth century was art pottery manufacturing. Samuel A. Weller became the most important manufacturer in 1890,
when he began production in Zanesville. Most of his early products included simple items like flowerpots, cuspidors, and tableware. By 1905, more than
five hundred workers found employment in Weller's plant. These workers produced three boxcars full of pottery every day, making Weller the largest
manufacturer of pottery in the world by the 1910s. Pottery manufacturing remains a vital component of Muskingum County's economy today. In 2003, many of
Zanesville's residents found employment in various pottery establishments, including Fioriware Art Pottery, Zanesville Pottery and China, Incorporated,
and Robinson Ransbottom Pottery in nearby Roseville. Other businesses also flourish in the county, such as Volvo Trucks and Custom Vans of Zanesville. The
county also enjoys a booming tourism industry, due to the pottery manufacturers, as well as the Longaberger Company, which produces baskets in nearby
Frazeysburg. People across the world collect Longaberger baskets.
Among Muskingum County's more prominent residents was astronaut and United States Senator John Glenn. Glenn grew up in New Concord, Ohio, and attended
Muskingum College. Author Zane Grey also lived in the county.